It occupies the territory of about 24000 square kilometers.
There are many beautiful lakes in the mountainous parts.
The capital of the country is London.
One of the chief industries is shipbuilding.
The yields of farms and pastures are very high.
7. Составьте план и кратко изложите содержание текста в письменной форме.
1) Geographical position of Great Britain
2) The territory and population of Great Britain
3) The relief of Great Britain
4) Industry and agriculture of Great Britain
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles. It consists of four parts: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.
The territory of the United Kingdom is about 244,000 square kilometers. The population is over 60 million.
The surface of Great Britain varies greatly. The northern and western parts of the country are mountainous and are called the Highlands. All the rest (south, east and the centre) is a vast plain which is called the Lowlands.
Great Britain is a highly developed industrial country. Three-quarters of the United Kingdom’s land is dedicated to agriculture. The yields of English farms and pastures are very high.
1. Изучите активную лексику урока и повторите слова за диктором:
corn (n) - зерно
cotton (n) - хлопок
industry (n) – отрасль промышленности
coast (n) – берег, побережье
ocean (n) - океан
population (n) - население
racial (adj) - расовый
federation (n) – федерация, союз, объединение
powerful (adj) – сильный, могущественный
stretch (v) - простираться
unite (v) – объединять
2. Прочитайте текст и выберите правильные ответы на вопросы:
1. The territory of the USA is ………than that of Europe.
b) much smaller
c) a little smaller
2. What kind of state is the USA?
a) It’s a federal republic.
b) It’s a constitutional monarchy.
c) It’s a parliamentary republic.
3. Where is the motor-car industry most developed?
4. Why is the region of the Middle West called ” Corn Belt”?
a) Because they grow wheat and maize there.
b) Because they buy wheat and maize from other regions.
c) Because cotton is grown there.
5. The USA economy is …………………
a) not developed at all.
b) highly developed.
3. Подберите правильный перевод к словам и фразам:
A) heavy industries a) отрасли тяжелой промышленности
B) practically b) высокомеханизированный
C) highly mechanized c) один единственный
D) widespread d) практически
E) one single e) широко распространенный
F) one sixth f) одна шестая
4. Дополните выражения из текста предлогами:
1. The western coast is washed by the Pacific Ocean.
2. The capital of the USA is Washington.
3. was established by the Constitution.
4. unites one sixth of the USA intoone region
5. the industry is developed inSan Francisco.
5. Заполните пропуски в предложениях одним из предложенных слов:
1.The USA lies between (among/between/next to) Mexico and Canada.
2.The US agriculture is highly (higher/highly/high) mechanized.
3.The eastern coast is washed (washed/washing) by the Atlantic Ocean.
4.The USA is a federation of 50 (50/60/30) states.
5.The majority of the population live in towns (towns/villages).
6. Составьте предложения из данных слов и словосочетаний:
1. on, nation, The USA, is, fourth, the, earth, largest, geographically.
The USA is the fourth geographically largest nation on earth.
2. is, Agriculture, in, widespread, Middle West, the.
Agriculture is widespread in the Middle West.
3. stretches, It, southern states, all, over.
It stretches all over the southern states.
4. The USA, powerful, leading, the, in, the, world, is, and, state.
The USA is the leading and powerful state in the world.
5. Its, is, smaller, area, a little, than, that of Europe.
Its area is a little smaller than that of Europe.
7. Составьте план и кратко изложите содержание текста в письменной форме.
1) Geographical position of the USA
2) The territory and population of the USA
3) Industry and agriculture of the USA
The USA is a large country. Its area is only a little smaller than that of Europe. It is 9 million square kilometers. The USA lies in the central part of the North American continent between Canada and Mexico.
The population of the USA is more than 281 million people. It represents practically all racial and national groups.
The USA is the leading and powerful state in the world. It is a highly developed industrial country. Its agriculture is highly mechanized.
THORSTEIN VEBLEN AND FRANK KNIGHT
CRITIC AND DEFENDER OF THE MARKET SYSTEM
Thorstein Veblen (1857 – 1929)
In 1899 conventional wisdom of the economists of that day was jolted with the publication of Veblen’s The Theory of the Leisure Class. A professor of economics at the University of Chicago, Veblen said much about contemporary economics and social behavior that angered and upset his colleagues.
In what may be his most famous contribution, Veblen challenged the assumptions built into the laws of supply and demand. One of those assumptions was that of ‘consumer sovereignty’. Veblen questioned the assertion that the consumer was a king who demanded and received the best goods and services at the lowest prices. Instead, he argued, consumers were subject to all kinds of social and psychological pressures that led them to make some very unwise decisions.
To illustrate, he coined the term conspicuous consumption to describe the tendency of the ‘leisure class’ (the wealthy) to buy goods and services simply to impress others. This, in turn, led middle class consumers, and even the poor, to imitate the wealthy by buying goods for similar purposes. When that occurred, it was possible for the law of demand to be reversed. Quantity demanded increased at a high price rather than at a low one. For example, the demand for a 1-ounce bottle of an unknown brand of perfume priced at US $1 was likely to be less than the same perfume selling for US $15 an ounce.
As for the other side of the market, Veblen argued that the desire for profits drove business interests into doing unscrupulous things. Some of these included efforts to eliminate competition, restrict output, build ever larger combinations of existing firms, and separate those who owned America’s corporations from those who managed them. This, he predicted, would result in wasted resources and the inability of the economy to reach its full potential. From these observations, Veblen concluded that laissez-faire capitalism was probably destined to be replaced in the long run with a system more attuned to the needs of the People.
Frank Knight (1885 – 1972)
A professor of economics at the University of Chicago, Frank Knight advocated free enterprise and laissez-faire politics. Knight pointed out that except for the basic necessities of life the purchase of anything could be described as ‘conspicuous consumption’. Since, he noted, even Veblen would have conceded that people need more than the bare necessities, who was to say which purchases were reasonable? Should the government or some other higher authority decide what would be offered for sale? Of course not, Knight concluded, consumer demand ought to determine what goods and services would be provided.
Turning to the supply side of the market, Knight defended profits as the driving force behind business. The quest for profit would move business to produce whatever the economy wanted. Meanwhile, the inescapable punishment of financial loss awaited those firms who failed to meet the market’s demands. In his famous work, Risk, Uncertainty and Profit (1921), Knight answered critics who, like Veblen, had questioned the legitimacy of profits.
Profits, he said, were the reward earned by business for accepting the uncertainties of the market. In this he distinguished between risk(which can be predicted and against which one can be insured) and the uncertainty of events that cannot be predicted. Everyone, for example, facesthe risk of illness and can be insured against it. But sweater manufacturers can never know with certainty that the styles that they are producing today will still be in demand when they appear in the stores six months from now. Therefore, those manufacturers who guess correctly are entitled to the rewards they earn.
Meanwhile, those who produced the wrong style or color will be motivated to do better next season or face ruin.
Economists and others still debate the issues raised by Thorstein Veblen’s challenges to the market system and Frank Knight’s responses to them.
Торстейн Веблен и Фрэнк Найт
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